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> Handling Write-Up, Suspension Tuning, Aerodynamics and other blurbs
post Jun 25, 2006 - 8:45 PM
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JesterDC

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Write-up on Body-Roll, Suspension Tuning and other randomness
I think it's all covered-ish

At special request from jdg371 in my first thread, located here -> http://www.6gc.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=38530 , I bring you (whether you’re in the SCCA or AutoX) a semi-brief-ish, semi-in-depth-ish(no equations or too much physics jargon) explanation of (drum roll please datdatdatdatdat....) suspensions, suspension tuning, body roll and other things that do stuff that affect do-hickeys and such.

What sorta Suspension Set-up is in my 6th gen Celica?

[indent]Front Suspension

Macpherson Struts are what you will find under your car. They consist of a lower sub-frame, a wheel hub that the axle and steering linkage hooks up to, a strut(a spring with a shock absorber in the center, a couple of links and somewhere to mount. This type of suspension only works (without any need for good luck charms or holy water tongue.gif )on cars with unibody construction, that's because all force not absorbed by the suspension is transmitted right to the mount in our wheel well causing our chassis to flex and sometimes permanently warp. frown.gif Typically not seen as a performance suspension because of its limited adjustability, though it still works its way into 911's, Mustangs, and all BMW's. Really the only advantages this suspension has are a typically roomier front engine compartment due to lack of upper A-arms, and it's cheap to make but expensive to fix(I a smell corporate conspiracy).

[indent]Rear Suspension

An independent multi-link suspension system is set-up in the back and I was all set to explain it until I saw the in- in front of de-. Can't really wrap my head around with out some diagrams to help, but from my very limited knowledge I know that independent multi-links are very adjustable. It’s possible to adjust either camber, toe-in, or caster of the wheel attached without affecting the other two planes of adjustment.


So now we grasp basic knowledge of our suspension, but if some one could expand on the rear suspension that would be sweet.

[indent]Tuning the Suspension and Other stuff you need to know that affects Handling.

Suspension tuning is one of the easiest things you can do to make your car go FASTER. Ok so tuning a cars suspension won’t make your car accelerate any faster or give it a higher top speed, but it will let you go faster through the turns and in turn faster on the straights (because you’re exiting the turn faster at a higher speed).

Modern road cars typically have gas-filled shock absorbers and a low-rate (soft) spring. This combination gives a smooth ride with springs providing the opposing force against movement and the shocks dampening (absorbing) the movement of the suspension.

To properly tune a suspension you’ll need either a coil-over type suspension (preferably one that can adjust stiffness, of at least the shocks, without affecting ride height, like these http://www.6gc.net/index.php?action=parts&itu=439) or a whole lot of different rate springs and the time to swap them after every run.

Suspension tuning is FRICKIN’ EASY. If you learn nothing else from this write-up learn this:

If turning and the inside REAR wheel is coming off the ground or trying to, you need to adjust the FRONT suspension to increase dampening force (shocks) or increase rate of stiffness (springs) or both, in the FRONT.

If the inside FRONT wheel is coming off the ground or trying to, you need to adjust the REAR suspension to increase dampening force (shocks) or increase rate of stiffness (springs) or both, in the REAR.

The reason that your car is suffering from body roll is because of the strut(spring and shock), created by manufacturers for factory cars, is designed to make your drive “comfortable”, not “fun”. So when you’re turning (at speed) with your “comfortable” suspension set-up your suspension is trying to be “comfortable”, but I seriously doubt you’ll be very comfy riding on 2-3 contact patches when you should be on 4. The forces that are really screwing you over in a turn are the centrifugal forces acting on your car. These forces are what roll your car, normally pivoting on the outer front tire because you shifted your cars weight forward when you hit the breaks before entering a turn. Think about trying to do a stoppie, you know like those crotch rockets, with your Celica. Now that that’s pictured in your head think about trying to do a stoppie with your Celica and trying to turn at the same time, yeah… still not happening.

Now we know what’s happening and how to fix it, but what’s so bad about it?

Have you ever heard the phrase “Man, this car really grips the road!” while your tires play a big role in that, they’d be nothing without the supporting cast. Performance suspensions are built to help distribute weight evenly left-to-right, and sometimes front-to-back (not the case in 6GC’s). Traction is a force tied in with friction, and in the case of traction friction is very good. A Contact Patch is the area of tire that actually touches the road; it’s a very small space. When your car’s contact patch isn’t a contact patch any more you don’t have any traction. Body Roll pulls weight off of tires, those tires aren’t contacting or contacting as much as they should with the road.

So say your inside rear is coming up on hard turns, that means that your pivoting on the outside front wheel. The entire car is pivoting on your outside front, so the inside front and outside rear are also being pulled up (maybe not off the ground but still getting pulled up). So with weight coming off all wheels except the outside front, all that transferred weight will be placed on one wheel’s contact patch, the outside front. Now the car is going to experience massive oversteer with the back end whipping out around the outside front because it’s basically the only wheel getting traction right now. Or if your center of gravity is high enough (ex. SUV’s) you’ll probably flip off the road, and onto those people trying to make me donate money to non-existent charities at stop-lights.

Strut Bars

Strut bars are bars (duh) that connect the strut towers together to negate chassis flexing forces being transferred through the wheel well strut mounts. Reducing chassis flex helps to reduce understeer when turning at high speeds.

Anti-Sway Bars

Basically an ASB is a torsion spring connected to the lower arms of the suspension. A good ASB matched to your car will not affect vertical suspension movement, so you’ll still have a smooth ride. But ASB’s do affect roll-related movement, as one arm moves up and another arm moves down the distance between them gets bigger and the torsion spring helps keep that distance from getting to big so you stay more level. An ASB that is not matched to your vehicle can cause vertical motion of the suspension to be transferred side-to-side because of the torsion spring being to strong, this results in a rocking motion much like a hammock.

Aerodynamics

Downforce is our friend, Lift is not our friend. Downforce increases traction, Lift does not. Lift is VERY BAD. Most cars on the road actually freaking produce lift, WTF mad.gif ! That is BAD! So now it’s up to you to fix it, ‘cause I don’t wanna be in a flying car on a slalom. Not much to be done but put an actual (functional) spoiler on the back, and get a low suspension combined with a body kit that has a bottom line parallel to the ground. The lower you are to the ground the smaller the gap thus less air under car, and if there’s less air there the lift of the car is reduced. The front of 6GC’s engine bay is pretty roomy, if you put a GT-4 front bumper with a custom fabricated hood and a little more custom fabricating connecting the top grill on the bumper to an opening in the hood and you could have a front spoiler similar to a Lotus or a Ferrari!

Drag is also bad. Our car has a coefficient drag of .38. No fake hood scoops or fake brake cooling scoops, all they do is act like a parachute. Smooth surfaces are good, everything we can see on the Celica is smooooooth, but what about those surfaces we can’t see? The under-carriage is rough, bumpy, jagged, and has parts sticking-out all over the place, the Lotus Elise (powered by the same engine as 7GC’s) has carbon fiber sheets covering the under-carriage to reduce drag and turbulent air produced there. A diffuser mounted on the bottom back bumper, normally as a body kit or add-on skirt, will help direct air up into the low-pressure area behind your car, further reducing unwanted drag.

One thing you need to know is that more downforce=more drag, but it is a very worth while trade. F1 cars have a coefficient drag of .7 to 1.1 that varies based on their needs at the track. If it’s a track full of slaloms then they need more downforce, if it’s mostly straights they need less drag.


Blurbs list

Cars with lower centers of gravity roll less. Other than lowering suspensions not much can be done to lower your C of G.

Tires with less sidewall flex and bend less, so their contact patch stays steadier. But they also make more road noise and absorb less force themselves, for example holes, rocks, and speed bumps (at speed) are more likely to damage your rims or pop your tires or both, trust me my sister has lost 3 rims frown.gif and popped her tires 5 times on her Jetta equipped with the factory performance suspension.

Soft tires have better traction but wear out faster; hard tires last longer but have less traction.

Roll cages are good for when your suspension craps out (or if you’re a bad driver mad.gif who pretends your suspension crapped out) tongue.gif .


Any questions, comments, corrections, and/or discussions would be cool. I’d also be happy to help with any otherwise noobish questions.
post Jun 25, 2006 - 9:01 PM
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JesterDC

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http://links.pictures.aol.com/pic?id=1e20V...grlhJeYC&size=l

http://links.pictures.aol.com/pic?id=1e20V...jkGEGAqw&size=l

Fixed Links

This post has been edited by JesterDC: Jun 25, 2006 - 9:14 PM
post Jun 25, 2006 - 9:28 PM
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azian_advanced



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IPB Image


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nice write up btw!!


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post Jun 26, 2006 - 6:39 AM
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jdg371



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your my hero!!!! +1 sticky

Our cars C/D is .34

http://www.automallusa.net/1997/toyota/cel...ifications.html

post Jun 26, 2006 - 7:30 AM
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azian_advanced



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also, co-efficient of drag is .32 for 94-95 celicas
(not like it really matters much)


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post Jun 26, 2006 - 7:38 AM
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jdg371



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Ill try to get some pictures while the Celica is coming out of a high speed corner..
post Jun 26, 2006 - 9:18 AM
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Speeder



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Nice wriht up, here is a cornering picture:



This post has been edited by Speeder: Oct 31, 2009 - 5:37 PM


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post Jul 6, 2006 - 7:03 AM
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jdg371



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Haha I got the whole info on the write up. Im going to AutoX again on the 16th.. Ill get more pics of how a Stock Celica STs suspension reacts


It took me a while to ge the Pic that Pressure put up.. not the write up hehe
post Jul 28, 2006 - 9:28 PM
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jdg371



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took a while.. http://hr404.smugmug.com/gallery/1576509/2/76288689 cant get the pic.. just the link.. this is on a small radius left hander


Also anyone have a chart of spring rates? TRD, GCs, Eibach ProKit.. etc?

post Aug 7, 2007 - 9:18 PM
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ecaddiction



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QUOTE(jdg371 @ Jul 29, 2006 - 2:28 AM) [snapback]462677[/snapback]

took a while.. http://hr404.smugmug.com/gallery/1576509/2/76288689 cant get the pic.. just the link.. this is on a small radius left hander


Also anyone have a chart of spring rates? TRD, GCs, Eibach ProKit.. etc?

Man, the 6gc is one of the worst out of that group. I think the Mr2 is worse and the 240 is up there. Hope fully thats stock suspension tongue.gif


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post Aug 7, 2007 - 10:47 PM
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JesterDC

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QUOTE(ecaddiction @ Aug 7, 2007 - 9:18 PM) [snapback]586186[/snapback]

Man, the 6gc is one of the worst out of that group. I think the Mr2 is worse and the 240 is up there. Hope fully thats stock suspension tongue.gif


But think about, you don't know how fast they are going... faster = more body roll... and who would have the balls to take it a little bit faster than everyone else... wink.gif hmmmm? The MR2 oh wait, I mean the Celica of course!!! lol laugh.gif And who cares about Nissans, seriously? biggrin.gif
post Aug 8, 2007 - 4:44 PM
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ecaddiction



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Haha, yea that thing MUST be swapped, because I know its out there halfing everybody's times. laugh.gif

This post has been edited by ecaddiction: Aug 8, 2007 - 4:44 PM


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post Aug 9, 2007 - 7:50 AM
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jdg371



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White MR2 has some suspension modifications.. aka a HUGE front sway bar, slicks, and koni yellows. Running in CSP it is very competitive against the Miatas.

Celica is BONE stock with 15x6 Steelies with 205/50/15 Kumho Ecsta SPT.

post Aug 9, 2007 - 11:53 AM
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JesterDC

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Nice pics! Good to see the guide growing, thanx!
post Sep 26, 2010 - 1:23 PM
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sunwukongg



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bumping this because there are people too lazy to look in stickys. this is gooood info that everyone should know haha
post Nov 30, 2010 - 11:14 PM
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4-eyed-freek



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so i have been looking into suspension things latley and i have been doing some searching and i thought i would share to you all what you already may know but it may be helpful to someone that needs advice.

CHANGES/POSITIVE/NEGATIVE
incrrease tire width... positive= increased dry traction... negative= hydroplaning in wet conditions, reduced fender well clearance.

increase wheel offset... positive=increased trace width. reduced weight transfer...negative=aerodynamic drag. increased wheel bearing load. reduced tire clearance.

lower center of gravity...positive=reduced weight transfer. reduced body roll...negative=reduced ground clearance. reduced wheel travel.

increased spring rate...positive=reduced body roll...negative=increased bump shock.

increased anti-roll bar rate...positive=reduced body roll...negative=increased single bump harshness.

increased negative camber...positive=increased tire cornering power...negative=tire wear. steering/break pull. reduced straight line traction.

increased positive caster...positive=straight line stability. improved camber on turns...negative=harder steering. possible shimmy.

lower roll center...positive=less camber change on roll...negative=increased tire scrub on roll.

replaced suspension bushings(more solid ones)...positive=faster anti-roll bar response.
..negative=increased vibration. harsher ride.

This post has been edited by 4-eyed-freek: Nov 30, 2010 - 11:16 PM


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post Dec 4, 2010 - 2:08 AM
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Stambo



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Caster is always a good thing to have. It really helps with high speed stability as you stated. The more positive also helps return the steering wheel to center easier.


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post Dec 5, 2010 - 12:28 PM
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hatchy_gt-s



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Another note about offset wheels is increased understeer with wider rear, increased oversteer with wider front.
post Dec 15, 2010 - 7:09 PM
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95CelicaST



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QUOTE (eboz74 @ Dec 15, 2010 - 2:36 PM) *
QUOTE (BonzaiCelica @ Dec 14, 2010 - 8:28 PM) *
QUOTE (eboz74 @ Dec 14, 2010 - 8:19 PM) *
I'm about to lower my celica what would be better to use lowering springs or coil overs


oh wow your being real lazy and you want the answer spoon fed to you. Search that online anywhere on google pros and cons with lowering springs vs coilovers. Coilovers are much more expensive than lowering springs and allow for much more adjustments. just search it and if you should find all your answers. I believe there is something in the sticky's about your question.


lol not being lazy its just with the hondas that i've owned lowering springs always worked out better for me and toyotas just seem like a whole new breed of car so i figured i'd ask people who have the experience


You're being lazy. Stop. Navigate that computer peripheral in your hand up to our wonderful SEARCH feature... And then look at all of the incredibly detailed threads that will answer your questions. This isn't honda-tech.


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post Sep 25, 2011 - 6:35 PM
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BonzaiCelica



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talking out of my @$$ but fitting the rear suspension from a 7th gen even possible, the whole suspension. I also know you'd need a new fuel tank, but what else?? All i know is that the rear tracks are basically the same. 6th gen gt Celica 1490mm rear track, 7th gen gts 1480mm rear track.

7th gen gts has a 75mm long wheelbase

This post has been edited by BonzaiCelica: Sep 25, 2011 - 6:40 PM


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